Homo floresiensis lived in Flores, Indonesia. It suggests far reaching changes of understanding to Homo erectus, which arrived at Flores some 800,000 years ago.

A whole skeleton of 18,000 years old called "Flo" and more fragments since (of 95,000 to 13,000 years old) was found of a three foot high human known as the Hobbit on Flores at the eastern tip of Indonesia. The skeleton was not of a child because the molars were very worn, the wisdom teeth were through the gums and the skull plates were well fused. The pelvis is different from modern humans and the legs are shorter proportionately. These skeletal remains therefore show the smallest humans known.

The Hobbit has a tiny brain with a brain case the size of an orange, and Flo (and others) was not a microcephalic (a condition in modern humans) Homo sapien. Homo floresiensis was not a modern Homo sapien pygmy, whose brain is two to three times that of the Hobbit. Flo's structure and shape is that of a Homo erectus, reduced, with a proportionality larger frontal Area 10 for brain processing, keeping its intelligence (in planning, initiatives and intentions) as the brain shrunk from that of Homo erectus.

It seems that this island reduced the size of elephants to dwarfs and increased the size of rats. The reptiles grew to eat the mammals. In this context of scarce resources, the humans shrunk and produced a new species. So is demonstrated how evolution happens in humans as in all animals.

It also means that for 20,000 to 40,000 years the Homo sapiens and Homo floresiensis must have co-existed. Different species of humans existed elsewhere in the world. Hobbits lived in deep caves.

If Flores villagers and their stories are to be believed, the Hobbits were raiders, organising parties from their last base on a nearby volcano plundering Homo sapien gardens and homes. The handed down story is that the Hobbits took a baby which the modern humans found to be dead in the Hobbit cave, and the villagers took revenge burning the cave. The problem with the story is the deep layer of ash from the volcano that would have buried human life there so much earlier.

There are no evolved descendents from Homo floresiensis. They all died out probably 12000 years ago but, if village tales are to be believed (and the volcanic ash evidence of a major deposit suggests not), 300 years ago.