Australopithecus afarensis (including the famous Lucy, alive 3.2 million years ago), lived from nearly 4 to 3.2 million years ago, had a small ape-size brain, lived in groups, and was quite adaptable. This was considered the key to human development with its adaptation to the dryer eastern climate. However, this has been paralleled by the Kenyanthropus platyops at the same time and superseded by the Orrorin Tugenensis by some two million years with a subsequent new theory of development: earlier and more diverse. The male was nearly 5 foot tall, and female under 3.5 feet probably because males competed for females. They were likely to gather in groups of around thirty for defence in numbers, as well as throwing rocks at predators. The linear theory suggested there are five likely offshoots from this species, although they can come alternatively from the Kenyanthropus platyops: the first Homo type (likely), and four more Australopithecenes.