Charles (1809 - 1882) and Emma (1808 1896) Darwin
Religion and Churches

Although Charles Darwin attended a Unitarian Sunday School and chapel in his home town of Shrewsbury, if he was going to advance in society he would have to attend Church of England institutions, and he did.
His famous grandfather, Erasmus Darwin, was himself quite radical, being a revolutionary freethinker, Deistic in religion, and like the Unitarian Joseph Priestly, his view of mind was reductionist and materialist. His father similar but he kept quiet because he was a doctor to wealthy Anglican patrons (and a financier). These were Tory years in power, with the Napoleonic Wars ending, and aspiring people (especially like the Wedgwoods) had to comply with the Anglican Church. Thus Charles was baptised in 1809 into the Church of England despite attendance at the Unitarian chapel. His mother died when he was eight and so he became a boarder with his older brother Erasmus at the Anglican Shrewsbury School.
Scotland was Presbyterian and so a man from a Whig non-conformist family would be especially at home in Edinburgh University. Such newer universities acquiring especially dissenting people from industry and business organised more modern subjects than evident in older Anglican institutions. So Edinburgh was a first choice because of its excellence in Medicine, but Darwin (spending summer 1825 as an apprentice doctor to his father) started and rejected the subject there. He wanted to be a clergyman and his father then sent him to Christ's College at the University of Cambridge for the degree including Anglican theology. There he adapted himself to fully accept credal Christianity. Why be a clergyman? Because it would give him time to do science, and he could live on his father's money and expect a good inheritance.
Darwin thus became ever more interested in science, and in those days science was understood as an argument from design (Herschel - observation and reasoning - and Paley - God acting through the laws of nature). The argument is along the lines of look at the parts of the watch and this surely needs a watchmaker, or the eye needs design for all its parts. Each species is designed by God and so has always existed. The story of Noah's Ark was about animals existing from the beginning being saved from the flood (a story of faithfulness in the midst of a holocaust, taken for so long as a piece of history). It was also about a catastrophe and many geologists looked for evidence of a flood but were now dropping the attempt to connect the rock strata observed with a short catastrophic flood.
His interest in natural history began at Edinburgh, however. One of his proposers for the Plinian Society concerned with natural history was William A. F. Browne who in 1827 argued that mind and consciousness were dependent on the brain and nothing to do with souls or non-bodily entities. This was the sort of freethought his grandfather Erasmus had expressed, but then Darwin took little notice from what he had read. Erasmus had thought God might be a first cause only (deism) and embraced a kind of Lamarckianism, that is that animals through their activity improve themselves in several diverse directions through a kind of inner will and faculty into the next generation that reflects outward activity of the parents.
Cambridge had a reputation for Latitudinarian theology, that is liberal and broad in approach. Arian views circulated (see below). Nevertheless Anglican theology still, formally, and as taught, was based on creation by design. Darwin adapted himself to fully accept credal Christianity and its stance on the Bible, believing that the miracles proved Jesus could not be an imposter and had to be God the Son. In year two a couple of radicals Richard Carlile and the Revd. Robert Taylor called on a sort of mission and were banned: taken as a warning at the time. But Darwin's interest in natural theology in year three was a means into the liberal Christianity at Cambridge led by Adam Sedgwick, George Peacock and William Whewell. Natural history was allowed as compatible with natural theology, but natural history was changing natural theology and straining it against revealed theology. In year four Darwin read Paley and Herschel maintain all about God's design. Animal hostilities to them were a form of population control; oddly Paley would repeal the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England to which Darwin had signed his agreement in order to enter Cambridge, but this liberality didn't impress Darwin. Botany Professor Hensall (who became a friend) rejected not signing the Articles but still suggested studying under Sedgwick about the old age of the earth. Sedgwick had once believed in the flood, but not any more. Darwin's plan was a trip to Wales for rock strata study with Sedgwick ahead of starting a voyage to the tropics before becoming a clergyman. However, back from Wales, that further trip's arrangements had fallen through and instead he became a gentleman naturalist and companion to the captain on The Beagle. Robert McCormick was the official naturalist. The voyage began on 27 December 1831 and continued for nearly five years. The Beagle surveyed and charted coasts but on land Darwin was able to study the geology of places and he made natural history collections. On board he wrote many notes and developed his ideas.
Three Fuegians were returned to their homeland after a year in England and Darwin could see that they were civilised and friendly and the relatives were like savages: thus there were cultural not racial differences and there was a parallel between domesticated and wild animals and these humans, and therefore no difference on this understanding between people and animals. This was radically different from the Christian understanding then that only humans have souls and we are ontologically different from animals.
Darwin was already becoming doubful about the Bible containing reliable history and he thought other religions may well be as true as well. He was questioning everything as he developed his insight that plant and animal life adapted slowly over time. He later wrote of his time between October 1836 and January 1839:
During these two years I was led to think much about religion. Whilst on board the Beagle I was quite orthodox, & I remember being heartily laughed at by several of the officers (though themselves orthodox) for quoting the Bible as an unanswerable authority on some point of morality. I suppose it was the novelty of the argument that amused them. But I had gradually come, by this time, to see that the Old Testament from its manifestly false history of the world, with the Tower of Babel, rainbow as a sign, etc., etc., and from its attributing to God the feelings of a revengeful tyrant, was no more to be trusted than the sacred books of the Hindoos, or the beliefs of any barbarian.
Still funded by his father Robert, early in March 1837, Darwin moved to London from Cambridge, to Charles Lyell's friends such as Charles Babbage, who regarded God as a programmer of laws. Darwin stayed with his freethinking brother Erasmus, part of this Whig circle and a close friend of the writer Harriet Martineau, sister of Unitarian James, asnd promoter of harsh Whig Poor Law reforms to stop welfare from causing overpopulation and more poverty. She welcomed the idea of one species becoming another naturally, rejected by Anglicans who thought such a view a threat to social order.
So he had acquired evidence that suggested thoroughgoing evolution. In any one environment some animals with some features would fair better and reproduce more than others with different less useful features. Features giving species comparative advantage in conditions of painful competition caused change over time so that creatures even changed into new species with their own niche in any one setting causing diversity and difference. Then they might spread out. These changes were the origin of species and not design by God. Not even the eye was designed.
In his posthumous autobiography he wrote: "We can no longer argue that, for instance, the beautiful hinge of a bivalve shell must have been made by an intelligent being, like the hinge of a door by man. There seems to be no more design in the variability of organic beings and in the action of natural selection, than in the course which the wind blows. Everything in nature is the result of fixed laws." (page 87)
This is different from Lamarckianism where animals improve via their own bias of activities. Natural selection comes through death of the lesser adapted in any environmental speciality, not the life and activity of prior creatures. Giraffe's necks don't get bigger because giraffe's were stretching, but rather because any shorter necked ones died off in competition with any longer necked ones. And, in any case, the giraffe was once similar to other four legged creatures with necks!
He still thought creatures were more or less perfectly adapted and had few imperfections, so long as they were subject to the competition of the living world in any environment. This competition involved a lot of suffering and death (sometimes called the survival of the fittest, but one must be careful about this as the the totality of Darwin's view). Clearly a good God could not be involved in this pain and suffering, although God could be a first cause.
He began to think (sociologically) that religion was a tribal survival stragegy: people use religion together to improve the collective will and outcome.
Charles was another Darwin who married back into the Unitarian Wedgwood family in January 1839 (his mother Susannah was a Wedgwood). He married his cousin Emma. Their shared grandparents were Josiah and Sarah Wedgwood. She accepted Charles's marriage proposal on 11 November 1838 (aged 30), and they married on 29 January 1839 at St. Peter's Anglican Church in Maer. They were married by their cousin, the Reverend John Allen Wedgwood (Anglican). She remained strongly Unitarian in outlook, even when attending Anglican parish churches.
One should be careful about Unitarianism at that time. It was relatively new on the scene, in England and Wales, and had been renewing a stale English Presbyterianism that had been in some decay for a number of decades. It inherited from Puritan Presbyterianism (one, however, without a Presbyterian structure of ministers - inconsistently and weakly imposed by Parliament about 1652, unwanted by Cromwell, supressed at the Restoration of the monarchy and Anglicanism from 1660 and 1662's ejection of Puritan ministers, and unwanted after the Glorious Revolution with toleration after 1689). That Puritan direction was a reliance on the Bible alone, and the earlier Unitarians had a new spin on what was in those pages, they being so read without the benefit of German theology and biblical criticism.
Unitarians reading their Bible could not see a doctrine of the Trinity. There were two earlier dominant views active: Arian and fully Unitarian. Jesus may have come from heaven, but he was made by God the Father and appeared as a man. The Trinity (in the creeds) says that Jesus Christ is as eternal as God the Father, but this Arian position denied this. Or, Jesus was always a man, born of two parents, chosen by God and empowered to make miracles and do good. God resurrected Jesus from the dead as a justification of what Jesus had done. People who believed in Jesus and his life and works went to heaven. Then there was a broader view, that of the individual conscience as the final seat of authority, with a movement to a more poetic or symbolic changing liturgy, and this view was held by the Darwins' Unitarian friends. Unitarianism was important for Emma, focused on the authority of conscience rather than scriptural or doctrinal authority, and she was questioning. Her strong belief was in life after death. In an Anglican church she rejected the creed and formularies and gestured by bodily stance her rejection.
At first Charles and Emma discussed their Christian beliefs (although some said denying Jesus's eternal divinity meant they were not Christians). Emma did not mind honest doubt, which she detected in Darwin from the beginning, and considered it a void between them, as she was attached to Christ in the New Testament and was worried Charles might not be saved and she might not be with him in eternity. God, she believed, was good, and so did he in principle. However, Darwin discovered that animals evolving were often not in an ethical process or outcomes. For example, the ichneumon wasp paralyses caterpillars as live food for its eggs.
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Species in the Struggle for Life was first published in 1859 and it was consistent with the deist position he had acquired but which was not settled. He did not now believe in revelation and was unsure about any life after death. Indeed he rejected New Testament views as damnable for expecting belief in Christ as a condition of eternal life.
The Darwins socialised with the more progressive of Unitarian theologians James Martineau and John James Tayler, and read their works as well as those of other Unitarian and liberal Anglican authors such as the theist, vegetarian and animal rights leader Francis William Newman (brother of John Henry) and another animal rights champion, Frances Power Cobbe. However, at Down village, Darwin was the eyes and ears of absent rectors of the parish, despite the fact that from about 1849 on a Sunday morning he walked while Emma and the children went into the church. In the service Emma did not turn to face the altar for the Creed.
Darwin believed that the death of his nine year old daughter at the end of June 1850 was a kind of evidence of weakness in the family and an evidence of lack of human and Wedgwood-Darwin family benefit from natural selection. He was, after all, often ill himself, and in response to anxieties about the implications of his work. Emma thought Annie had gone to heaven but Charles gave up such belief in salvation.
Darwin did not want to publish The Origins of Species, but in 1858 learn that Alfred Russel Wallace had a similar theory. It turned out not to be that controversial. Former tutors Sedgwick and Henslow rejected his findings but more liberal clerics did not. Charles Kingsley, a Christian socialist country rector and novelist, wrote that it was "just as noble a conception of Deity, to believe that He created primal forms capable of self development... as to believe that He required a fresh act of intervention to supply the lacunas which He Himself had made." So Darwin added this response to the last chapter, attributed to "a celebrated author and divine".
Darwin was also supported in Essays and Reviews (1860), the Oxford based theology book that was itself far more controversial. Unitarians, many of them now drawing on biblical criticism coming from German universities, like Darwin's friends, were positive about Darwin's views.
Also in 1860 was the Oxford evolution debate during a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. The Bishop of Oxford Samuel Wilberforce, allowing for species change, argued against Darwin's stance and the implication (as he saw it) of human descent from apes. Joseph Hooker sided with Darwin, as did Thomas Huxley who said that he would rather be descended from an ape than a man (the bishop) who misused his gifts.
Evolutionary views rapidly became a way of seeing all kinds of cultural developments, and so the naturalistic explanation had a viral effect. History itself had evolved through human action, not through the intervention of God. This also undermined the biblical idea that history was activated through the interventions of God.
Darwin did have his own theological views, in keeping with such radical theologians. In his autobiography he wrote:

[T]he more we know of the fixed laws of nature the more incredible, do miracles become, — that the men at that time were ignorant and credulous to a degree almost incomprehensible by us, — that the Gospels cannot be proved to have been written simultaneously with the events, – that they differ in many important details, far too important as it seemed to me to be admitted as the usual inaccuracies of eyewitness; – by such reflections as these, which I give not as having the least novelty or value, but as they influenced me, I gradually came to disbelieve in Christianity as a divine revelation. The fact that many false religions have spread over large portions of the earth like wild-fire had some weight with me. Beautiful as is the morality of the New Testament, it can hardly be denied that its perfection depends in part on the interpretation which we now put on metaphors and allegories. (p.86)
Some tried to equate natural theology and Darwin's natural selection, as they had natural theology and geology, and Darwin himself around the 1850s and 1860s still allowed for the possibility of an impersonal deity. Not everything was brute force, he thought, and there may be laws that, then, chance works through. The universe was immense and beautiful and God could be behind that. He had stood in the midst of a Brazilian forest, reflecting on the elevating feelings of wonder, admiration, and devotion. Yet, such notions of responses were to be dropped and dropped totally, such as Darwin's disappointment that George Romanes' book presented to him in November 1878, A Candid Examination of Theism by "Physicus", intended to refute theism, allowed the possibility that God had created matter and energy with the potential to self-organise.
He did have a comparative religions view for rejecting theism, as revealed in his autobiography:

At the present day (ca. 1872) the most usual argument for the existence of an intelligent God is drawn from the deep inward conviction and feelings which are experienced by most persons. But it cannot be doubted that Hindoos, Mahomadans and others might argue in the same manner and with equal force in favour of the existence of one God, or of many Gods, or as with the Buddhists of no God...This argument would be a valid one if all men of all races had the same inward conviction of the existence of one God: but we know that this is very far from being the case. Therefore I cannot see that such inward convictions and feelings are of any weight as evidence of what really exists. (page 91)
He always denied atheism and maintained a peaceful view: he declined permission in October 1880 for an activist secularist, Edward Aveling, to dedicate his book on Darwin and his Works to Darwin himself. Approving of freethought, Charles Darwin instead argued for a gradualist approach to thinking and suggested he might even have caused pain to his own family if he had aided attacks on religion. Charles's son Francis Darwin took the view that his father's moderation in expression made all the difference between his father and militant secularists and freethinkers. Francis and his mother removed criticisms of Christianity from Darwin's posthumous autobiography, only restored in 1958 by Darwin's granddaughter Nora Barlow.
As time went on Darwin became ever more sceptical. The 1871 book The Descent of Man showed Darwin becoming sociological and anthropological in outlook regarding human society and religion. Religion was acquired for moral improvement, but there was no innate positive religiosity in humankind that was evidence for God. Tribal societies often have no notion of a God or gods, travellers had reported. The idea that humankind was different from the animals because of a belief in God [would be received and realised in the soul] was simply not evident, including not evident in these tribal languages. They did, however, believe in [magical] spiritual agencies, often dangerous, but an advance is reason advances the ideas of a belief in gods and God.
Victorians were also getting interested in spiritualism. At Erasmus's house in January 1874, Darwin attended a seance, but left the stuffy room to lie down, telling Emma afterwards that it was "all imposture". Darwin later wrote, "The Lord have mercy on us all, if we have to believe such rubbish" A later event was reported by attenders as fraudulent.
The Darwins moved to Down (later Downe, now inside the M25) in Kent (now the London Borough of Bromley) in 1842, living in the former parsonage, like a clergyman but without having to be one, and incidentally there was no nearby Unitarian chapel to attend (there was a Baptist chapel). From 1846 Darwin was friendly with the perpetual Curate Rector Revd. John Innes, a high Churchman, who didn't accept Darwin's explanation for evolution. Darwin was his eyes and ears when he was absent as and he retired to his new Scottish home in 1862. Darwin contributed to the church and the poor with Darwin as guardian and treasurer of the Down Friendly Society. Emma was like a vicar's wife, not just caring for their family but giving bread tokens to the hungry, simple medicines and comforts and even small pensions for the old. Being elsewhere, Revd. Innes made Darwin treasurer of Down village school and they continued to correspond, with Innes seeking help and advice on parish matters. Brodie Innes offered to sell Darwin the right to appoint his successor, but Darwin didn't want that. Thus Darwin sent reports to Innes about local happenings including the clergy. A curate called Samuel James O'Hara Horsman didn't care for the accommodation and spent long periods absent on his yacht, and wrote to Darwin (not Innes) to sort out his finances before his replacement. Darwin kept Innes informed. When Darwin mistakenly shared the treasurer's duties with the next one, he ran off with the school's money and the church organ fund. He went to prison for misappropriation of church funds. The next one, John Warburton Robinson, ran off to Ireland for three months and was seen out with a lady or "walking with girls at night".. Darwin noted a church attender left for the chapel in his evidence for Innes against this man. Henry Powell 1869–71 was fed up with the lack of process towards building a parsonage, so left, having taken from Darwin the Coal and Clothing and School funds administration.
Then came a long stayer, the Vicar of Down, from November 1871 - 1911 (Darwin still corresponding with Innes about him). Darwin and Emma clashed with him. Revd. George Sketchley Ffinden was like Innes a high Anglican, but much more authoritarian, and his changes upset the parishioners, as Darwin informed Innes. Innes considered that Emma’s Unitarianism and Darwin’s reputation made them unsuitable to be the pillars of the community.
Now Darwin had been on a committee for the local village school, and this committee had taken account of local Baptist chapel children so that they did not have to undergo Anglican teaching. Ffinden instead began lessons on the Thirty-nine Articles of the Anglican faith for them all, and as a result Darwin withdrew from the committee and reduced his annual donation to the church, even though he maintained his Friendly Society duties.
Emma herself for two years had organised an alternative to the pub. It was a reading room for local labourers during the winter where they paid a penny a week to smoke and play games, with access to "Respectable newspapers & a few books... & a respectable housekeeper ... there every evening to maintain decorum." In 1873 the Revd. Ffinden not only disagreed with the institution, as "Coffee drinking, bagatelle & other games" showing "the effects of tobacco smoke & spitting" to the children the next morning, but also because he said Charles Darwin (on Emma's initiative) had gone behind his back to gain the education inspectorate in London's approval of the activity and indeed the agreement of the school committee.
Darwin thus resigned from the school committee in the autumn of 1874, but on the basis of ill health, brought about as he argued over natural selection with St. George Jackson Mivart.
Ffinden cut himself off from the Darwins, and when he wanted to use the schoolroom for two lectures in 1875 (the request made via a go-between), Ffinden showed his oppostition to Darwin that:

I had long been aware of the harmful tendencies to revealed religion of Mr. Darwin's views...
He claimed that he had not challenged such views on the basis of being a good neighbour, but in the hope God would change Darwin's viewpoint.
Church and chapel were dividing, here as often elsewhere, and when a non-conformist evangelist came on the scene, J. W. C. Fegan, the Darwins changed their allegiance to him as being more effective in tackling the social and moral needs of the poor in the village. Darwin wrote to the evangelist that that there was not a drunkard left in the village. Emma and the children attended his services.
Incidentally a number of the Darwins are buried in Downe churchyard. These are Emma's sister, Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood (died 1880), Charles's brother Erasmus Alvey Darwin (died 1881), Emma Darwin herself(1896), the children: Mary Eleanor Darwin (1842), Charlie (1858), Elizabeth (1926), Henrietta (1927); also Elinor Monsell (1954) and her husband being Charles and Emma's grandson, Bernard Darwin (1961). Charles Darwin wanted to be buried there but instead was buried at Westminster Abbey.
With fame came demands to reconcile religion and science, and Darwin showed increasing disinterest in doing so, even decline a request from the Archbishop of Canterbury to do such among a private group of devout scientists. Nevertheless, he thought science did impact nagatively on religious belief. In fact he tried to be respectable towards religion. Rev. Innes sent Darwin a sermon by E. B. Pusey, the Anglican who had reacted in horror at the direction of German theology when visiting Europe, and at the miscommunication between learned ministers and the congregations. Pusey wanted science and religion to be separately treated, which Darwin rejected, although thought each camp could behave themselves. The botanist Henry Nicholas Ridley contacted Darwin over the same sermon, that Pusey accused Darwin as having a negative theological stance inherent in his science. Darwin recalled his own belief in God at that time, so Pusey was quite wrong, and Darwin did his science untroubled by such "insoluble questions". Pusey's attack on evolution was like the attacks against geologists before or indeed against Galileo.
Darwin's son George acquired his father's view, and in 1873 wrote an essay that dismissed prayer, divine morals and "future rewards & punishments". Darwin urged caution in publishing, as much had been said on such matters and the young should publish what is new.
Unitarians were proud of Darwin. After his funeral at Westminster Abbey, William Carpenter carried a resolution praising Darwin and his unravelling of "the immutable laws of the Divine Government" and showing "the progress of humanity". The Unitarian preacher John White Chadwick from New York wrote, loftily, of Darwin as if Christ-like: "The nation's grandest temple of religion opened its gates and lifted up its everlasting doors and bade the King of Science come in."

Darwin's Children

William Erasmus Darwin (27 December 1839 – 8 September 1914), infant subject of psychological studies by his father.
Anne Elizabeth Darwin (2 March 1841 – 23 April 1851) Charles wrote in a personal memoir "We have lost the joy of the household, and the solace of our old age.... Oh that she could now know how deeply, how tenderly we do still & and shall ever love her dear joyous face." See great grat grandson Keynes, Randal (2001). Annie's Box: Charles Darwin, His Daughter, and Human Evolution. Fourth Estate, London. ISBN 978-1-84115-060-4. He discovered a box of keepsakes of Anne collected by Charles and Emma. The film Creation (2009) is based on the special biography of Charles Darwin, as focused on the relationship between Darwin and his daughter, Annie's Box.
Mary Eleanor Darwin (23 September 1842 – 16 October 1842)
Henrietta Emma "Etty" Darwin (25 September 1843 – 17 December 1927)
George Howard Darwin (9 July 1845 – 7 December 1912)
Elizabeth "Bessy" Darwin (8 July 1847 – 8 June 1926)
Francis Darwin (16 August 1848 – 19 September 1925) Sir Francis Darwin (knighted 1913) was married three times and widowed twice. Amy Richenda Ruck in 1874, who died in 1876 four days after the birth of Bernard Darwin, who was to become a golf writer. September 1883 married Ellen Wordsworth Crofts (1856 - 1903), had a daughter Frances Crofts Darwin (1886–1960), a poet who married the poet Francis Cornford and famous as Frances Cornford. 1913 Florence Henrietta Fisher, daughter of Herbert William Fisher and widow of Frederic William Maitland. Her sister Adeline Fisher was the first wife of Darwin's second cousin once removed: Ralph Vaughan Williams.
Leonard Darwin (15 January 1850 – 26 March 1943), the last of Darwin's immediate offspring to die, and no children from two marriages of women both of the Darwin-Wedgwood clan.
Horace Darwin (13 May 1851 – 29 September 1928)
Charles Waring Darwin (6 December 1856 – 28 June 1858)

Books by Darwin, Charles (sorted by popularity), [Online], Available World Wide Web, URL: [Accessed: Sunday July 18 2015, 04:45]

Darwin, Charles (1994), The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Species in the Struggle for Life, London: Senate.

Darwin Correspondence Project (2009), 'Belief: Historical Essay: What did Darwin Believe?' Darwin Correspondence Project; no date; University of Cambridge, [Online], Available World Wide Web, URL: [Accessed: Sunday July 18 2015, 03:45]

Darwin Correspondence Project (2015), 'Darwin and the Church: Historical Essay', Darwin Correspondence Project; no date; University of Cambridge, [Online], Available World Wide Web, URL: [Accessed: Sunday July 18 2015, 03:42]

Darwin, Charles (1958) (Edited with appendix and notes by Nora Barlow), The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809–1882, With original omissions restored, London: Collins.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 'The Religious Views of Charles Darwin', [Online], Available World Wide Web, URL: [Accessed: Sunday July 18 2015, 03:49]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 'Charles Darwin', [Online], Available World Wide Web, URL: [Accessed: Sunday July 18 2015, 03:47]

Keynes, Randall (2001), Annie’s Box: Charles Darwin, his Daughter, and Human Evolution, London: Fourth Estate.

Marston, Paul (17 September 2002), Charles Darwin and Christian Faith, [Online], Available World Wide Web, URL: [Accessed: Sunday July 18 2015, 03:51]

Newman, Francis (1850), Phases of Faith; Or, Passages from the History of My Creed, London: Chapman.


Adrian Worsfold

Pluralist - Liberal and Thoughtful