Lesson Objectives and
- Less Developed countries exist in a cycle of low capital formation and labour productivity (follow with diagram).
- LDCs have become saddled with huge debts in the financial system.
- The way out is either through intermediate technology or a dash for growth.
- Absolute Poverty is severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation, health, shelter, education and information.
- Overall Poverty is a lack of income and resources to maintain livelihoods leading to conditions of hunger and malnutrition, ill health, limited education, increased illness and death, homelessness and poor housing, unsafe environments and discrimination with exclusion from a wider cultural life.
- Positivism, Deduction, Comparison as objective statistical resulting approaches
- Interpretivism, symbolic interactionism and phenomenology as meaning based approaches
- Women have fought for equal rights.
- Women suffered low pay yet had many worthwhile skills.
- Married women had to give up work.
- Wartime boosted the rights and recognition of women at work.
- The Equal Pay Act of 1975 was a legal move to establish same pay for same work.
Animals cannot give consent but are deemed available for medical tests. There are guidelines on their treatment but questions of monitoring, purpose and speciesism. These issues are continual with all uses of animals, including eating, wearing and cosmetics.
Religious people combine traditional views regarding having dominion over nature and eating animals with religious calls for compassion. These arguments lead on to ask what the animals themselves experience and a human response.
Euthanasia is a question of human rights even with consent: the right to end one's own pointless painful life or the upholding of the sanctity of life. Suicide is a cry of despair, that someone will attempt to end their experience of being alive.
Practical decisions regarding euthanasia are never easy. All the main religions promote the sanctity of life, with some variations, and the humanist/ secular alternative includes the human rights of the individual.
Sanctity of Life impacts on controversies like IVF, abortion, cloning, euthanasia and Capital punishment. For many religious people, the sanctity of life comes from God, but this does not solve the controversies. For humanists, the preciousness of life comes from self consciousness.
Suicide has a social impact by age and occupation. There are many myths about suicide which need examination. Religions have specific teachings.
Poverty exists on the world and national scale. For the world we consider Absolute Poverty meaning lack of the basics to live; in the UK we consider Overall Poverty meaning relative deprivation below a baseline for a basic standard of living.
- Bosnia shows a multi-faith country can be religiously pluralist or religiously separatist. Great Britain is pluralist.
- Religious pluralism exists when there is confidence about others with different beliefs.
- Religious texts can be single faith or multi-faith, religiously separatist or religiously pluralist.
- A religious artefact is an object associated with a religion, which is used by or has an important place within that religion.
- Christian belief varies and women clergy may be more liberal in belief than male colleagues
- Raychandbhai (a Jain), Thoreau (an American writer) and Tolstoy (a Russian writer) influenced Gandhi in understanding and applying Non-violence.
- Social Harmony in Christianity and Hinduism can be represented diagrammatically.
- Christian and Hindu attitudes have been mixed.
- Christianity grew when the culture was patriarchal and some believe Jesus was comparatively pro-women.
- Other Christians say that Jesus as Son of God was beyond culture. He chose male-only disciples and, as with St. Paul, women are excluded from Christian leadership.
- Much of Hinduism is traditional as in the Law of Manu but ISKCON (Vishnu) and Virashaivites (Shiva) treat women equally.
- Multi-faith means different religions in the same region
- Pluralism means the State actively tolerates different religions and religions tolerate each other.
- Almost all Christians believe in other religions being free to practice.
- The evangelical Christian thinks Christianity is the only way to be saved.
- The liberal Christian thinks salvation exists in other religions as well as Christianity.
- The Roman Catholic view is other religions have a partial but inadequate road to salvation.
- Back in the temple Jesus impresses the Pharisees with his teaching.
- The betrayal of Jesus is planned with the Sadducees.
- Jesus prepares to announce the New Covenant.
- Maundy Thursday, the Last Supper and the Eucharist
- Jesus' Last Supper was an important ceremony that Jesus celebrated with his disciples before the expected coming of the Kingdom of Heaven. He said he would not celebrate it. again with them until the Kingdom of heaven came into being.
- Jesus' Last Supper became the most important ritual of most Christians.
- Jesus was subjected to show trials and killed by painful crucifixion.
- The tradition writes that witnesses first experienced Jesus risen from the dead on the Sunday.
- There are different opinions on the appeal of the Jesus movement and what happened at the resurrection.
- Several biblical texts show that the risen Jesus is not recognised until a point is made and then he disappears.
- Some texts attempt to insist that the risen Jesus is the same bodily person as the earthly Jesus despite differences.
- There are varied opinions on what constitutes "the resurrection".
- Jesus' ministry does not start when he is born or when he is a boy.
- Jesus' ministry begins with the baptism performed by John.
- The first three gospels (the synoptic gospels) show Jesus is developing his ministry under the commission (command and overall direction) of God.
- Jesus' collected his disciples from ordinary people including sinners in the Galilee region.
- Some dropped comfortable working and business lifestyles to live in poverty and service.
- Christian marriage ceremony confers the grace of God if regarded as a sacrament (sacred event) or asks for grace through prayers.
- Marriage is stated to be a lifelong commitment between two loving partners and the proper setting for having and raising children.
- Music itself generates a thinking response in words.
- Music and words raise awareness of religious and historical meaning.
- Gorecki's Third Symphony relates to (personal experience relating to Christian belief, Mary and Crucifixion, motherhood and suffering with children, and wider historical experiences of tragedy).
- Most Christians support the idea of a traditional family as the bedrock of society for raising children.
- A baby is baptised using water to signify upbringing within the Christian Church and family.
- Some prefer believer's baptism in adult life while others add confirmation or church membership to their child baptism.
- Suffering and evil bring into question the existence and nature of God.
- The issue is why an all loving, all powerful and all knowing God should allow suffering and evil to take place.
- Christians have several answers as to why their God allows suffering and evil including the fall of humanity, free will and gaining spiritual resolve.
A Church of England wedding has a privileged place in law, because it is the Established Church. Other Church weddings may need a visiting official who listens for compulsory key phrases. Other religious ceremonies are private needing a Register Office or external State wedding.
The Apostles Creed shows the historical development of Christianity. Whilst it shows theologians agreeing to some beliefs and rejecting other beliefs, it also shows ordinary worshippers experiencing the dynamic Holy Spirit of God and Christ's presence from God.
In Roman Catholic and other bishop-led, and ritualistic, churches, the preparation for and carrying out the eucharist is the central sacrificial ritual. Mirroring the crucifixion, and hope for resurrection afterwards, people give themselves in faith consuming the bread and wine in exchange for the power of Christ.
Churches have developed distinctive architectures based on traditions: some facing Jerusalem (East), having the eucharist, preaching, priests and ministers leading, guided singing, and the congregation sitting and moving.
Having overturned the money changing tables in the Temple, and become very popular, Jesus was killed by the occupying regime at the behest of the corrupted Chief Priests. Christians say that God gave up his sinless son who did not have to die so that everyone else who must die could have everlasting life.
The Jesus movement focussed on preaching, teaching and healing, and attracted the poor, oppressed and destitute. This popularity and then the challenge of Holy Week alarmed the occupying and religious authorities. Jesus was killed by the authorities and its expectant movement claimed he was risen.
Several biblical texts show that the risen Jesus is not recognised until a point is made and then he disappears. Some texts attempt to insist that the risen Jesus is the same bodily person as the earthly Jesus despite differences. The tomb story comes first but came later.
Each life is a series of passing through stages. One important function of religion is to provide for symbolic markers in passing through stages of life.
Many cultures have a day of rest that punctuates the week. Even the creator God is said to have had a day of rest. Christians also believe Christ was raised on the Sunday, their day of rest.
- Ganesh, the god, of a child with an elephant's head, is an object of devotion by many Hindus.
- Ganesh relates to how we live
- Ganesh is a good story with problems to think about
- Hinduism claims that if a person is insulted then their Atman is insulted and therefore Brahman (God) is being insulted.
- India experienced racial discrimination under British rule and would not wish to repeat this.
- Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi experienced racism and taught against racism and discrimination.
Hindus (and others) effectively opposed racism and oppression because:
- The violence of the British authorities eventually failed against the principles of Satyagraha and Ahimsa.
- Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi had offered these religious principles towards successful political application.
- Hindu gods have many stories and attributes showing their characters.
- They represent creation, preservation, destruction, fighting evil and doing duty; they are both playful and serious.
- The gods guide human nature towards higher standards.
- Hinduism's pluriform nature regarding religious truth lends itself to be pluralist about other religions leading to religious truths.
- Hindu sages and leaders meeting other religions have proclaimed they lead to ultimate reality.
- Vivekananda (1863-1902) promoted Hinduism to the West on the basis of its tolerance.
- Hinduism has a pluriform (diverse with many aspects) nature.
- Aum or Om represents the sound of God and comes from the trifold Godhead and zero.
- The four types of Yoga are Jnanayoga (spiritual knowledge), Karmayoga (work duty), Bhaktiyoga (devotion to a god/ goddess) and Rajayoga (meditation).
- Yoga is the means to improve karma (merit) and achieve Moksha (release of Atman, the soul, to Brahman, the Ultimate).
Hinduism is a highly diverse faith within and this creates tolerance for others. It is a religion of a land and one with many beliefs, scriptures, and no central authority, and has different understandings of God and Gods.
Diversity of Hinduism; The Gods and the family tree; Different Gods, making a God picture of someone
- Hajj is a special at least once in a lifetime requirement for Muslims.
- We give importance and loyalty to events special to us.
- The Hajj includes circling the Ka'ba, hurrying between two hills with encountering the Zam Zam spring, considering everlasting life, asking for forgiveness and praying for everything, stoning the devils, and animal sacrifice.
- Hajj is physically demanding in hot dry conditions so that the believer learns to endure hardship for Allah.
- Hajj reminds the believer that Islam is in everything and Makkah is at the geographical centre.
- Id-ul-Fitr falls on the first day of the Islamic month of Shawwal, 5 December 2002 but other days in other years.
- Id-ul-Fitr is a celebration, thanksgiving and for seeking forgiveness of sins.
- This is a time for prayer, sending cards, visiting friends, and serving especially sweet foods
- Muslims claim the Qur'an is a direct, perfect and complete final revelation from Allah.
- Islam (submission) existed from Adam because Muhammad (pbuh) is the final prophet who was told to recite the Qur'an
- Islam can be shown as a whole diagrammatically
Humans think and yet they are forgetful. Islam says that as thinking beings we know about God and should not refuse to believe. Islam is submission to the one God and the Shahadah is repeated often so that believers remember.
Moses was able to lead his people from Egypt because:
- God spoke to Moses at the vision of a burning bush and gave the task
- Rameses ignored the warnings of the Hebrew God until his own son died of the plague.
- The miraculous staff was raised and the Red Sea parted but drowned the chasing Egyptians.
Orthodox Judaism maintains its identity through keeping ritual and symbolic practices in the modern world. The Orthodox justification includes those who think that identity through practices is important even though they do not observe themselves. The Ultra orthodox look back to a Torah true time.
Reform Judaism developed as a result of European social modernisation and religious toleration, causing some Jewish practices to be modified in order to be less distinct from others. Liberal Judaism is more radical in changes to Judaism. Both promote the equality of women.
Seder Night shows that not all celebrations are simply joyful. Food offers through taste the recall of a variety of experiences. On the Seder plate food represents conditions in Egypt, the experience of slavery and suffering, the speed of escape, and the joy of liberation into becoming a community of people.
Seder symbolism is deep and flexible. The food symbols are able to carry a great weight of Jewish tradition and to be adaptable. One extended application of Seder symbols and the Seder service are in feminist group activity.
Sukkot has deep origins in nature and these are reflected in both synagogue and tabernacle practices. Sukkot relates to harvest festival, but in history to the time in the wilderness living in flimsy accommodation.
Zionism established the desire for and the existence of Israel as a political entity before a Messiah came to restore the Promised Land to the Jews. Israel is the protector of Jews after centuries of repression and the religious see it as a facilitator of the coming Messiah.
Religions welcome and name new babies with a ritual. Jews link faithful Jews with the Covenant of Abraham, for which there is the Brit Milah or the Covenant of the Cutting.
Rosh Hashanah is the Jewish New Year. It means Head of the Year. This is a serious time for Jews to repent and reflect. It is when God is said to write your name in the Book of Life and seal your fate for a year. It is hoped that the year will be sweet.
Sukkot is a time of harvest celebration projected back to the ancestors who came out of Egypt and endured 40 years of flimsy accommodation in the wilderness dependent upon G-d.
Ten days of penitence follow Rosh Hashanah leading to Yom (when the Book of Life is closed). It is the day when God will judge Jews and everyone. For 25 hours Jews neither eat nor drink.
Between 1933 and 1945 Jews in Germany and German occupied Europe suffered the loss of their human rights, became freely subjected to state and private violence, and death, were forced into locked city ghettos, were enslaved, and then as many as could be were industrially killed.
Jewish belief emphasises this world, and different views have been given about the next world. For some, people return to dust, some speak of a dark hell, others expect resurrection, others consider the soul and a heavenly possibility.
Death is a part of life in Judaism, the timing decided by God. Jews go through a structured mourning process from the most intense short period to longer stages of remembrance until just anniversaries and synagogue events are observed.
Jewish believers celebrate the Passover through the symbolism of foods and the use of the sensation of taste for remembrance.
Jewish believers celebrate the Passover through the symbolism of foods and the use of the sensation of taste for remembrance.
Abraham was the Jews' Patriarch with whom the One God made a Covenant demanding worship and service for the Promised Land of Canaan. The One God is concerned with all of humanity and the Jews are demanded to be a chosen holy people.
- Sikh artefacts show a desire for religious freedom and a defensive community (with military overtones)
- The 5 Ks: Kanga, Kirpan, Kara, Kacchera and Kalsa relate to broader issues of presentation and self-esteem
Nam Simran is the continuing subtle awareness in the Sikh of the presence of divinity, a state of worship to show God is in all. Meditation on the Divine Name is crucial.