Lesson Objectives and
Opening Sentences


Social/ Sociological

Animals cannot give consent but are deemed available for medical tests. There are guidelines on their treatment but questions of monitoring, purpose and speciesism. These issues are continual with all uses of animals, including eating, wearing and cosmetics.

Religious people combine traditional views regarding having dominion over nature and eating animals with religious calls for compassion. These arguments lead on to ask what the animals themselves experience and a human response.

Euthanasia is a question of human rights even with consent: the right to end one's own pointless painful life or the upholding of the sanctity of life. Suicide is a cry of despair, that someone will attempt to end their experience of being alive.

Practical decisions regarding euthanasia are never easy. All the main religions promote the sanctity of life, with some variations, and the humanist/ secular alternative includes the human rights of the individual.

Sanctity of Life impacts on controversies like IVF, abortion, cloning, euthanasia and Capital punishment. For many religious people, the sanctity of life comes from God, but this does not solve the controversies. For humanists, the preciousness of life comes from self consciousness.

Suicide has a social impact by age and occupation. There are many myths about suicide which need examination. Religions have specific teachings.

Poverty exists on the world and national scale. For the world we consider Absolute Poverty meaning lack of the basics to live; in the UK we consider Overall Poverty meaning relative deprivation below a baseline for a basic standard of living.






A Church of England wedding has a privileged place in law, because it is the Established Church. Other Church weddings may need a visiting official who listens for compulsory key phrases. Other religious ceremonies are private needing a Register Office or external State wedding.

The Apostles Creed shows the historical development of Christianity. Whilst it shows theologians agreeing to some beliefs and rejecting other beliefs, it also shows ordinary worshippers experiencing the dynamic Holy Spirit of God and Christ's presence from God.

In Roman Catholic and other bishop-led, and ritualistic, churches, the preparation for and carrying out the eucharist is the central sacrificial ritual. Mirroring the crucifixion, and hope for resurrection afterwards, people give themselves in faith consuming the bread and wine in exchange for the power of Christ.

Churches have developed distinctive architectures based on traditions: some facing Jerusalem (East), having the eucharist, preaching, priests and ministers leading, guided singing, and the congregation sitting and moving.

Having overturned the money changing tables in the Temple, and become very popular, Jesus was killed by the occupying regime at the behest of the corrupted Chief Priests. Christians say that God gave up his sinless son who did not have to die so that everyone else who must die could have everlasting life.

The Jesus movement focussed on preaching, teaching and healing, and attracted the poor, oppressed and destitute. This popularity and then the challenge of Holy Week alarmed the occupying and religious authorities. Jesus was killed by the authorities and its expectant movement claimed he was risen.

Several biblical texts show that the risen Jesus is not recognised until a point is made and then he disappears. Some texts attempt to insist that the risen Jesus is the same bodily person as the earthly Jesus despite differences. The tomb story comes first but came later.

Each life is a series of passing through stages. One important function of religion is to provide for symbolic markers in passing through stages of life.

Many cultures have a day of rest that punctuates the week. Even the creator God is said to have had a day of rest. Christians also believe Christ was raised on the Sunday, their day of rest.



Hindus (and others) effectively opposed racism and oppression because:

Hinduism is a highly diverse faith within and this creates tolerance for others. It is a religion of a land and one with many beliefs, scriptures, and no central authority, and has different understandings of God and Gods.

Diversity of Hinduism; The Gods and the family tree; Different Gods, making a God picture of someone



Humans think and yet they are forgetful. Islam says that as thinking beings we know about God and should not refuse to believe. Islam is submission to the one God and the Shahadah is repeated often so that believers remember.



Moses was able to lead his people from Egypt because:

Orthodox Judaism maintains its identity through keeping ritual and symbolic practices in the modern world. The Orthodox justification includes those who think that identity through practices is important even though they do not observe themselves. The Ultra orthodox look back to a Torah true time.

Reform Judaism developed as a result of European social modernisation and religious toleration, causing some Jewish practices to be modified in order to be less distinct from others. Liberal Judaism is more radical in changes to Judaism. Both promote the equality of women.

Seder Night shows that not all celebrations are simply joyful. Food offers through taste the recall of a variety of experiences. On the Seder plate food represents conditions in Egypt, the experience of slavery and suffering, the speed of escape, and the joy of liberation into becoming a community of people.

Seder symbolism is deep and flexible. The food symbols are able to carry a great weight of Jewish tradition and to be adaptable. One extended application of Seder symbols and the Seder service are in feminist group activity.

Sukkot has deep origins in nature and these are reflected in both synagogue and tabernacle practices. Sukkot relates to harvest festival, but in history to the time in the wilderness living in flimsy accommodation.

Zionism established the desire for and the existence of Israel as a political entity before a Messiah came to restore the Promised Land to the Jews. Israel is the protector of Jews after centuries of repression and the religious see it as a facilitator of the coming Messiah.

Religions welcome and name new babies with a ritual. Jews link faithful Jews with the Covenant of Abraham, for which there is the Brit Milah or the Covenant of the Cutting.

Rosh Hashanah is the Jewish New Year. It means Head of the Year. This is a serious time for Jews to repent and reflect. It is when God is said to write your name in the Book of Life and seal your fate for a year. It is hoped that the year will be sweet.

Sukkot is a time of harvest celebration projected back to the ancestors who came out of Egypt and endured 40 years of flimsy accommodation in the wilderness dependent upon G-d.

Ten days of penitence follow Rosh Hashanah leading to Yom (when the Book of Life is closed). It is the day when God will judge Jews and everyone. For 25 hours Jews neither eat nor drink.

Between 1933 and 1945 Jews in Germany and German occupied Europe suffered the loss of their human rights, became freely subjected to state and private violence, and death, were forced into locked city ghettos, were enslaved, and then as many as could be were industrially killed.

Jewish belief emphasises this world, and different views have been given about the next world. For some, people return to dust, some speak of a dark hell, others expect resurrection, others consider the soul and a heavenly possibility.

Death is a part of life in Judaism, the timing decided by God. Jews go through a structured mourning process from the most intense short period to longer stages of remembrance until just anniversaries and synagogue events are observed.

Jewish believers celebrate the Passover through the symbolism of foods and the use of the sensation of taste for remembrance.

Jewish believers celebrate the Passover through the symbolism of foods and the use of the sensation of taste for remembrance.

Abraham was the Jews' Patriarch with whom the One God made a Covenant demanding worship and service for the Promised Land of Canaan. The One God is concerned with all of humanity and the Jews are demanded to be a chosen holy people.



Nam Simran is the continuing subtle awareness in the Sikh of the presence of divinity, a state of worship to show God is in all. Meditation on the Divine Name is crucial.