Homo neanderthalensis, emerging 250,000 years ago, not our ancestors, were localised in clans. There is a 0.2 per cent difference in genes between these sisters and brothers of us and ourselves. The discovery of a Neanderthal hyoid bone in 1983 in Israel shows neanderthals could speak even though it would be limited to aspects of their limited social organisation and environment. Their brain size was similar or bigger than ours (ours is more intelligent) but they had specialised tools showing planning for the hunt and clothing (etc.) and tools mean planning ahead. However, the lacked Homo sapiens creativity. Neanderthals were probably like us regarding body hair. They had to hunt, and hunting uses up a lot of energy, so they had to hunt in order to supply that need for energy! So if they had a lot of hair, perspiration would have frozen to their hair. Large noses warmed and moistened the dry cold air. Teeth wear (with prominent front teetch) shows the certainty of scraping and clearning animal skins for clothing. They made their flints five times sharper than a surgeon's scalpel. Thick, short and bowed bones helped retain heat and provide extra strength to cope with the physical demands of their lives. The bones of Neanderthal women prove they were strong and muscular, indicating that they were capable of hunting and providing for themselves. Whilst there may have been interbreeding, DNA tests exclude Neanderthal genes in homo sapiens. So the Neanderthal genes in homo sapiens must have died out if births of hybrids took place. Neanderthals did not use projectile weapons but had many injuries like rodeo riders and so they killed large animals at close quarters. Many suffered their bad injuries some time before death demonstrating that Neanderthals must have cared for their wounded and elderly. They buried their dead with care demonstrating compassion. The two species of human co-existed for thousands of years. Slightly lower birth rates and higher mortality rates in a colder climate killed off the Neanderthals 30,000 years ago and they may have lost territory to us.