Text Adapted from Microteaching in teacher training


This is an example of text in the front of a book.


Open University Press

Celtic Court

22 Ballmoor


MK18 1XW



1900 Frost Road, Suite 101

Bristol, PA 19007, USA


First Published 1996


Copyright © Tim May


All rights reserved. Except for the quotation of short passages for the purposes of criticism and review, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of the publisher or a licence from the Copyright Licensing Agency Limited. Details of such licences (for reprographic reproduction) may be obtained from the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd of 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, WP1 9HE.


A catalogue record of this book is available from the British Library


ISBN 0 335 19286 6 (pbk) 0 335 19287 (hbk) 96-23676



Typeset by Type Study, Scarborough

Printed in Great Britain by Buiddles Ltd, Guildford and Kings Lynn


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

May, Tim, 1957-

Situating social theory / Tim May.

p. cm.

Includes biographical references and index.

ISBN 0-335-19287-4 (hb). –ISBN 0-335-19286-6 (pb)

1. Sociology–Philosophy. I. Title.

HM24.M299 1996

301’.01–dc20 96-23676



It is always worth reading this page as it can provide most or all of the data needed in referencing a book.


A reference is made in any work if the book or other source is used in any way. This can be a direct quotation or even indirect use of someone else’s idea. Their idea is their intellectual copyright!


In the body of the text


Numbering or symbols in superscript usually refer to footnotes or endnotes (the use of book references in these places has its own convention of greater bibliographic detail first and lesser at repeat references).


Normally referencing to acknowledge a text using Harvard is usually done immediately after a quotation with a bracketed text of author surname (up to two, after which add et al.), comma, first name/s or initials, comma (other authors likewise), the date, comma and the range of pages.


If the authors surname/s are mentioned close by, only the date and page/s are subsequently needed. If two or more sources from the same year are used, put a or b or c etc alongside the date without a gap, and therefore this letter should also be done in the bibliography. If there is no date, put and instead of the date. If there is no known author, put the main title there instead.


Example (an imaginary sentence):


So the argument goes that it is no longer advisable to have a top down view of social reality, either Durkheim’s all encompassing sociological approach, impersonal given roles or cause and effect but to focus on the relevant situations of individual lives (May, 1996, 98).


Another example:


According to Tim May:


Anthony Gidden’s project is highly ambitious. In the attempt to synthesize the dualisms of action and structure, which is at the heart of social theory, it should come as no surprise that this has resulted in a number of works which criticize, elaborate upon and generally interrogate structuration theory. (May, 1996, 117)


In the above example the author is repeated because it is unclear where Tim May has said this. If it was clear where, or the same book is obviously being followed, then (1996, 117) or even (117) would have been sufficient directly following previous book quotes.


At the end of the work


The bibliography itself at the end of a piece of work should only contain a range of pages if a specific area of the source was used and no other.


In the bibliography, the article in a book or other source is surrounded by quotes, but the title of the source is either underlined or in italics.


There are several conventions for a source's details. One of the most popular is Havard. However, order in itself does not always matter - consistency throughout does.


The order is: author surname, comma, author initials, the date in brackets, comma, italicised capitalised title (and if a subtitle then colon, subtitle, lower case), comma, the location, colon,the publisher, comma, full stop.


(Capitalised means the first letter of every word other than a joining word is a capital letter)


Do not give any reprint date, and only use the last copyright date if there is no last publication date. Optionally add the edition after the title or subtitle (what matters is the date!).


An article title in quotation marks precedes its italicised source (book, magazine, periodical) title. The date is in the usual place after the author but may be repeated in the details of the publication's number, month, issue etc. Be consistent for all publications.


An example:


Gluckman, M. (1962), 'Les Rites de Passage', in Gluckman (ed.), Essays on the Ritual of Social Relations, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1-52.


In the case of the Internet, the publisher and location is replaced (or followed) by a square bracketed "Online", then details of the online URL (this means web address) and date and time of access (very important).


Incidentally, due to ghosting of actual web addresses with domain names and frames, right click and open the frame in a new window to expose its actual web address. The square bracketing also works for "E-mail" and "CD-Rom" instead of “Online”.


An example:


Worsfold, A.J. (2000), Task: Writing a Bibliography in a Consistent Order, [Online], Available World Wide Web, URL: [Accessed November 8, 2000, 22:59]


Marshall, L., Rowland, F. (1998), A Guide to Learning Independently, 3rd edition, Buckingham: Open University Press, 231-247